Dhaka formerly known as Dacca, is the capital and the largest city of Bangladesh. Dhaka is the economic, political, and cultural center of Bangladesh, and is one of the major cities in South Asia. The geographic position/location of Dhaka city, i.e. the OUIAA, Dhaka Branch is 23°45′50″N 90°23′20″E. Under the Köppen climate classification, Dhaka has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw). The city has a distinct monsoonal season, with an annual average temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and monthly means varying between 19 °C (66 °F) in January and 29 °C (84 °F) in May. Approximately 87% of the average annual rainfall of 2,123 millimeters (83.6 inches) occurs between May and October. The total area of Dhaka City is 2467 km2 including metro and urban area which ranked it the 8th largest and 4th most densely populous city in the world with, as of 2011, a population of 8.9 million residents within the city limits, and a population of over 21.7 million residents in the Greater Dhaka Area. The city is bounded by rivers. The city rose to prominence in the 17th century as a provincial capital and commercial centre of the Mughal Empire. Dhaka was the capital of the proto-industrialized Mughal Bengal for 75 years (1608–39 and 1660–1704).
On 7 March 1971, Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman addressed a massive public gathering at the Ramna Race Course Maidan in Dhaka, in which he urged people to prepare for the independence war. On 25 March 1971, the Pakistan Army launched military operations under Operation Searchlight against the population of East Pakistan. Dhaka bore the brunt of the army’s atrocities, witnessing a genocide and a campaign of wide scale repression, with the arrest, torture and murder of the city’s civilians, students, intelligentsia, political activists and religious minorities. In the ensuing Bangladesh War of Independence, the Bangladesh Forces launched regular guerrilla attacks and ambush operations against Pakistani forces. Dhaka witnessed the surrender of the West Pakistan forces in front of the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December 1971 with the surrender of Pakistan.
In 2011, Dhaka City Corporation was split into two separate corporations – Dhaka North City Corporation and Dhaka South City Corporation for ensuring better civic facilities. Dhaka is home to over 2000 buildings built between the 16th and 19th centuries, which form an integral part of Dhaka’s cultural heritage. Examples include Lalbagh Fort, Ahsan Manzil, Tara Mosque, Chawk Mosque, Hussaini Dalan, Armenian Church, Dhaka Gate, Dhanmondi Shahi Eidgah, Rose Garden Palace, Choto Katra, Bara Katra, Dhakeshwari Temple, Swami Bagh Temple, Ramna Kali Mandir, Dharmarajika Buddhist Monastery, Holy Rosary Church, and Pogose School.
There are 52 universities in Dhaka that offer undergraduate and graduate degrees as well as a variety of doctoral programs. University of Dhaka is the oldest public university in the country which has more than 37000 students and 2000 faculty staff. It was established in 1921 being the first university in the region. The university has 13 faculties, 83 departments, 13 institutes, 56 Research centers and bureaus, 20 residential Halls and 3 Hostels. Eminent seats of higher education include Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Jagannath University and Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University. Dhaka Medical College and Sir Salimullah Medical College are two of the best medical colleges in the country. Founded in 1875, the Dhaka Medical School was the first medical school in British East Bengal, which became Sir Salimullah Medical College in 1962. Other government medical colleges are Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College, Mugda Medical College and Armed Forces Medical College, Dhaka. Dhaka is the financial, commercial and the entertainment capital of Bangladesh. It accounts for about 35% of Bangladesh’s economy. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranks Dhaka as a beta− global city, in other words, one that is instrumental in linking their region into the world economy. Major industrial areas are Tejgaon, Shyampur and Hazaribagh.